Dive into Deep Learning
Table Of Contents
Dive into Deep Learning
Table Of Contents

9.1. Image Augmentation

We mentioned that large-scale data sets are prerequisites for the successful application of deep neural networks in the “Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (AlexNet)” section. Image augmentation technology expands the scale of training data sets by making a series of random changes to the training images to produce similar, but different, training examples. Another way to explain image augmentation is that randomly changing training examples can reduce a model’s dependence on certain properties, thereby improving its capability for generalization. For example, we can crop the images in different ways, so that the objects of interest appear in different positions, reducing the model’s dependence on the position where objects appear. We can also adjust the brightness, color, and other factors to reduce model’s sensitivity to color. It can be said that image augmentation technology contributed greatly to the success of AlexNet. In this section we will discuss this technology, which is widely used in computer vision.

First, import the packages or modules required for the experiment in this section.

In [1]:
%matplotlib inline
import d2l
import mxnet as mx
from mxnet import autograd, gluon, image, init, nd
from mxnet.gluon import data as gdata, loss as gloss, utils as gutils
import sys
import time

9.1.1. Common Image Augmentation Method

In this experiment, we will use an image with a shape of \(400\times 500\) as an example.

In [2]:
img = image.imread('../img/cat1.jpg')
<matplotlib.image.AxesImage at 0x7f6e9c18e518>

The drawing function show_images is defined below.

In [3]:
# This function is saved in the d2l package for future use.
def show_images(imgs, num_rows, num_cols, scale=2):
    figsize = (num_cols * scale, num_rows * scale)
    _, axes = d2l.plt.subplots(num_rows, num_cols, figsize=figsize)
    for i in range(num_rows):
        for j in range(num_cols):
            axes[i][j].imshow(imgs[i * num_cols + j].asnumpy())
    return axes

Most image augmentation methods have a certain degree of randomness. To make it easier for us to observe the effect of image augmentation, we next define the auxiliary function apply. This function runs the image augmentation method aug multiple times on the input image img and shows all results.

In [4]:
def apply(img, aug, num_rows=2, num_cols=4, scale=1.5):
    Y = [aug(img) for _ in range(num_rows * num_cols)]
    show_images(Y, num_rows, num_cols, scale) Flip and Crop

Flipping the image left and right usually does not change the category of the object. This is one of the earliest and most widely used methods of image augmentation. Next, we use the transforms module to create the RandomFlipLeftRight instance, which introduces a 50% chance that the image is flipped left and right.

In [5]:
apply(img, gdata.vision.transforms.RandomFlipLeftRight())

Flipping up and down is not as commonly used as flipping left and right. However, at least for this example image, flipping up and down does not hinder recognition. Next, we create a RandomFlipTopBottom instance for a 50% chance of flipping the image up and down.

In [6]:
apply(img, gdata.vision.transforms.RandomFlipTopBottom())

In the example image we used, the cat is in the middle of the image, but this may not be the case for all images. In the “Pooling Layer” section, we explained that the pooling layer can reduce the sensitivity of the convolutional layer to the target location. In addition, we can make objects appear at different positions in the image in different proportions by randomly cropping the image. This can also reduce the sensitivity of the model to the target position.

In the following code, we randomly crop a region with an area of 10% to 100% of the original area, and the ratio of width to height of the region is randomly selected from between 0.5 and 2. Then, the width and height of the region are both scaled to 200 pixels. Unless otherwise stated, the random number between \(a\) and \(b\) in this section refers to a continuous value obtained by uniform sampling in the interval \([a,b]\).

In [7]:
shape_aug = gdata.vision.transforms.RandomResizedCrop(
    (200, 200), scale=(0.1, 1), ratio=(0.5, 2))
apply(img, shape_aug)
../_images/chapter_computer-vision_image-augmentation_13_0.svg Change Color

Another augmentation method is changing colors. We can change four aspects of the image color: brightness, contrast, saturation, and hue. In the example below, we randomly change the brightness of the image to a value between 50% (\(1-0.5\)) and 150% (\(1+0.5\)) of the original image.

In [8]:
apply(img, gdata.vision.transforms.RandomBrightness(0.5))

Similarly, we can randomly change the hue of the image.

In [9]:
apply(img, gdata.vision.transforms.RandomHue(0.5))

We can also create a RandomColorJitter instance and set how to randomly change the brightness, contrast, saturation, and hue of the image at the same time.

In [10]:
color_aug = gdata.vision.transforms.RandomColorJitter(
    brightness=0.5, contrast=0.5, saturation=0.5, hue=0.5)
apply(img, color_aug)
../_images/chapter_computer-vision_image-augmentation_19_0.svg Overlying Multiple Image Augmentation Methods

In practice, we will overlay multiple image augmentation methods. We can overlay the different image augmentation methods defined above and apply them to each image by using a Compose instance.

In [11]:
augs = gdata.vision.transforms.Compose([
    gdata.vision.transforms.RandomFlipLeftRight(), color_aug, shape_aug])
apply(img, augs)

9.1.2. Using an Image Augmentation Training Model

Next, we will look at how to apply image augmentation in actual training. Here, we use the CIFAR-10 data set, instead of the Fashion-MNIST data set we have been using. This is because the position and size of the objects in the Fashion-MNIST data set have been normalized, and the differences in color and size of the objects in CIFAR-10 data set are more significant. The first 32 training images in the CIFAR-10 data set are shown below.

In [12]:
show_images(gdata.vision.CIFAR10(train=True)[0:32][0], 4, 8, scale=0.8);

In order to obtain a definitive results during prediction, we usually only apply image augmentation to the training example, and do not use image augmentation with random operations during prediction. Here, we only use the simplest random left-right flipping method. In addition, we use a ToTensor instance to convert mini-batch images into the format required by MXNet, i.e. 32-bit floating point numbers with the shape of (batch size, number of channels, height, width) and value range between 0 and 1.

In [13]:
train_augs = gdata.vision.transforms.Compose([

test_augs = gdata.vision.transforms.Compose([

Next, we define an auxiliary function to make it easier to read the image and apply image augmentation. The transform_first function provided by Gluon’s data set applies image augmentation to the first element of each training example (image and label), i.e., the element at the top of the image. For detailed description of DataLoader, refer to the previous “Image Classification Data Set (Fashion-MNIST)” section.

In [14]:
num_workers = 0 if sys.platform.startswith('win32') else 4
def load_cifar10(is_train, augs, batch_size):
    return gdata.DataLoader(
        batch_size=batch_size, shuffle=is_train, num_workers=num_workers) Using a Multi-GPU Training Model

We train the ResNet-18 model described in “ResNet” section on the CIFAR-10 data set. We will also apply the methods described in the “Gluon Implementation in Multi-GPU Computation” section, and use a multi-GPU training model.

First, we define the try_all_gpus function to get all available GPUs.

In [15]:
def try_all_gpus():  # This function is saved in the d2l package for future use.
    ctxes = []
        for i in range(16):  # Here, we assume the number of GPUs on a machine does not exceed 16.
            ctx = mx.gpu(i)
            _ = nd.array([0], ctx=ctx)
    except mx.base.MXNetError:
    if not ctxes:
        ctxes = [mx.cpu()]
    return ctxes

The auxiliary function _get_batch defined below divides the mini-batch data instance batch and copy the batches to each GPU contained in the ctx variable.

In [16]:
def _get_batch(batch, ctx):
    features, labels = batch
    if labels.dtype != features.dtype:
        labels = labels.astype(features.dtype)
    # When ctx contains multiple GPUs, mini-batch data instances are divided and copied to each GPU.
    return (gutils.split_and_load(features, ctx),
            gutils.split_and_load(labels, ctx), features.shape[0])

Then, we define the evaluate_accuracy function to evaluate the classification accuracy of the model. Different from evaluate_accuracy, the function described in the “Softmax Regression Starting from Scratch” and “Convolutional Neural Network (LeNet)” sections, the function defined here are more general. It evaluates the model using all GPUs contained in the ctx variable by using the auxiliary function _get_batch.

In [17]:
# This function is saved in the d2l package for future use.
def evaluate_accuracy(data_iter, net, ctx=[mx.cpu()]):
    if isinstance(ctx, mx.Context):
        ctx = [ctx]
    acc_sum, n = nd.array([0]), 0
    for batch in data_iter:
        features, labels, _ = _get_batch(batch, ctx)
        for X, y in zip(features, labels):
            y = y.astype('float32')
            acc_sum += (net(X).argmax(axis=1) == y).sum().copyto(mx.cpu())
            n += y.size
    return acc_sum.asscalar() / n

Next, we define the train function to train and evaluate the model using multiple GPUs.

In [18]:
# This function is saved in the d2l package for future use.
def train(train_iter, test_iter, net, loss, trainer, ctx, num_epochs):
    print('training on', ctx)
    if isinstance(ctx, mx.Context):
        ctx = [ctx]
    for epoch in range(num_epochs):
        train_l_sum, train_acc_sum, n, m, start = 0.0, 0.0, 0, 0, time.time()
        for i, batch in enumerate(train_iter):
            Xs, ys, batch_size = _get_batch(batch, ctx)
            ls = []
            with autograd.record():
                y_hats = [net(X) for X in Xs]
                ls = [loss(y_hat, y) for y_hat, y in zip(y_hats, ys)]
            for l in ls:
            train_l_sum += sum([l.sum().asscalar() for l in ls])
            n += sum([l.size for l in ls])
            train_acc_sum += sum([(y_hat.argmax(axis=1) == y).sum().asscalar()
                                 for y_hat, y in zip(y_hats, ys)])
            m += sum([y.size for y in ys])
        test_acc = evaluate_accuracy(test_iter, net, ctx)
        print('epoch %d, loss %.4f, train acc %.3f, test acc %.3f, '
              'time %.1f sec'
              % (epoch + 1, train_l_sum / n, train_acc_sum / m, test_acc,
                 time.time() - start))

Now, we can define the train_with_data_aug function to use image augmentation to train the model. This function obtains all available GPUs and uses Adam as the optimization algorithm for training. It then applies image augmentation to the training data set, and finally calls the train function just defined to train and evaluate the model.

In [19]:
def train_with_data_aug(train_augs, test_augs, lr=0.001):
    batch_size, ctx, net = 256, try_all_gpus(), d2l.resnet18(10)
    net.initialize(ctx=ctx, init=init.Xavier())
    trainer = gluon.Trainer(net.collect_params(), 'adam',
                            {'learning_rate': lr})
    loss = gloss.SoftmaxCrossEntropyLoss()
    train_iter = load_cifar10(True, train_augs, batch_size)
    test_iter = load_cifar10(False, test_augs, batch_size)
    train(train_iter, test_iter, net, loss, trainer, ctx, num_epochs=8) Comparative Image Augmentation Experiment

We first observe the results of using image augmentation.

In [20]:
train_with_data_aug(train_augs, test_augs)
training on [gpu(0), gpu(1)]
epoch 1, loss 1.3588, train acc 0.517, test acc 0.538, time 39.1 sec
epoch 2, loss 0.7905, train acc 0.719, test acc 0.682, time 35.1 sec
epoch 3, loss 0.5857, train acc 0.795, test acc 0.754, time 35.3 sec
epoch 4, loss 0.4687, train acc 0.837, test acc 0.793, time 35.3 sec
epoch 5, loss 0.3916, train acc 0.864, test acc 0.809, time 35.3 sec
epoch 6, loss 0.3258, train acc 0.888, test acc 0.807, time 35.2 sec
epoch 7, loss 0.2777, train acc 0.903, test acc 0.817, time 35.3 sec
epoch 8, loss 0.2395, train acc 0.916, test acc 0.849, time 35.2 sec

For comparison, we will try not to use image augmentation below.

In [21]:
train_with_data_aug(test_augs, test_augs)
training on [gpu(0), gpu(1)]
epoch 1, loss 1.3560, train acc 0.519, test acc 0.510, time 35.7 sec
epoch 2, loss 0.7903, train acc 0.720, test acc 0.702, time 35.2 sec
epoch 3, loss 0.5652, train acc 0.801, test acc 0.756, time 35.4 sec
epoch 4, loss 0.4192, train acc 0.852, test acc 0.735, time 35.3 sec
epoch 5, loss 0.3133, train acc 0.890, test acc 0.752, time 35.2 sec
epoch 6, loss 0.2207, train acc 0.922, test acc 0.749, time 35.4 sec
epoch 7, loss 0.1540, train acc 0.946, test acc 0.794, time 35.2 sec
epoch 8, loss 0.1108, train acc 0.962, test acc 0.747, time 35.3 sec

As you can see, even adding a simple random flip may have a certain impact on the training. Image augmentation usually results in lower training accuracy, but it can improve testing accuracy. It can be used to cope with overfitting.

9.1.3. Summary

  • Image augmentation generates random images based on existing training data to cope with overfitting.
  • In order to obtain a definitive results during prediction, we usually only apply image augmentation to the training example, and do not use image augmentation with random operations during prediction.
  • We can obtain classes related to image augmentation from Gluon’s transforms module.

9.1.4. Problems

  • Add different image augmentation methods in model training based on the CIFAR-10 data set. Observe the implementation results.
  • With reference to the MXNet documentation, what other image augmentation methods are provided in Gluon’s transforms module?

9.1.5. Discuss on our Forum